Their actions and perspectives demonstrate the use of conflict theory to explain social deviance. Boston: Little, Brown. On the negative side, anomie theory has been criticized for its generality.
Agnew also broadens the concept of strain, arguing that poverty may be a source of strain, but it is not the only source. For instance, macro-level origin theories concerned with the frustrating effects of poverty on deviance may have greater applicability to people living in densely populated urban areas than those living in rural areas.
In this instance, "urbanness" may constitute a condition that activates strain theories linking poverty to deviance. The removal of a positively valued stimulus, such as the death of a family member or the loss of a boyfriend or girlfriend, can also result in strain.
As a result of these differential attributions, minority youths are perceived as more threatening, more at risk for re-offending than whites and more likely to receive severe recommendations for sentences.
Bursik, Robert J. Conduct disorder is a psychological disorder diagnosed in childhood that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate norms are violated. Individuals in the opposite scenario, in which the person both violates rules and is perceived by others as deviant, Becker labeled pure deviants.
Many Marxist writers have the theory of the capitalist state in their arguments. The institution's ability to change norms, wealth or status comes into conflict with the individual.
Typically, sociological theories of deviance reason that aspects of individuals' social relationships and the social areas in which they live and work assist in explaining the commission of deviant acts.