The ethical debate over the 1998 plans to vaccinate all us service members for anthrax

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The congressionally sponsored report also advocated development of new classes of antibiotics against genetically modified anthrax. Turnbull PC. Cutaneous anthrax is generally associated with handling infected animals or their products and is manifested as a lesion that forms a vesicle and finally an ulcer marked by a characteristic black eschar.

The ethical debate over the 1998 plans to vaccinate all us service members for anthrax

Meanwhile, the current supply of AVA is limited because of manufacturing difficulties, which have now been overcome. Reports can be submitted by mail or fax, or the information can be provided over the telephone. Depending on the site of infection, anthrax can occur in a cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational form. Vaccine 9 8 — Anthrax Vaccine: Safety and Efficacy Issues. However, some of the issues that the committee did address should also be of interest for civilians. Even a vaccine considered highly effective may fail to protect some individuals under some circumstances. From the latter study, the expert panel concluded that the vaccine was "fairly well tolerated" and that severe local reactions and systemic reactions were "relatively rare. Formal epidemiologic studies are usually needed to determine whether those adverse events iden- 3 For this report, safety reflects expectations of relative freedom from harmful effects when a product is used prudently, considering the condition of the recipient and the health risk the product is directed against. Department of Defense, Washington, D. The committee also examined what is known and what must still be established regarding the correlation of protection in animal models with immunity in humans.

As a result, the postrenovation product has greater assurance of consistency than that produced at the time of original licensure. The study is discussed in detail in Chapters 4 and 5.

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The factors that account for these sex differences are not known. Studies have shown that the protection that AVA affords guinea pigs differs by bacterial strain Auerbach and Wright, ; Fellows et al.

Threat Assessments Official threat assessments also raise questions about the need for the old anthrax vaccine in national stockpiles.

Anthrax vaccine

Washington, D. One such resource is DMSS. Annual booster doses are required. The spore form of B. Moreover, human research subjects cannot be deliberately exposed to potentially lethal agents, such as anthrax spores, for no therapeutic reason and without the availability of a proven treatment. Future studies of vaccination against anthrax should continue to analyze data for men and women separately. As a result, the postrenovation product has greater assurance of consistency than that produced at the time of original licensure. Adverse events for which medical attention was received can be systematically identified within DMSS, and efforts can be made to determine whether those events are included in VAERS.

The complicated task of monitoring vaccine safety. Finally, comparing past problems with current threat assessments offers an opportunity to suggest potential alternative countermeasures which minimize the negative externalities resulting from the old anthrax vaccine.

But the real satisfaction is knowing the vaccine is back on-line.

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Executive Summary