Philosophers idea on the inborn good and evil of man
Granting that he deceived himself in this matter; the development and rapid flourishing of German philosophy depended nevertheless on his pride, and on the eager rivalry of the younger generation to discover if possible something--at all events "new faculties"--of which to be still prouder!
According to Kant, the principle that an act is good if its result is good is wrong. But then our body, as a part of this external world, would be the work of our organs!
By itself, a predisposition is generally not a conscious choice, but a source of motivation for choices, some of which happen to have ethical significance. The former kind of method of analysis is called " descriptive ", because it attempts to describe what people actually view as good or evil; while the latter is called " normative ", because it tries to actively prohibit evils and cherish goods.
Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy the concept of evil
He saw no problem about the connection between virtue and happiness, since both of them result directly from our perfection, and no problem about the connection between virtue and duty, since a duty is simply an act in accordance with law, which prescribes the pursuit of perfection. According to him, the greatest good is knowledge and the treasure of knowledge is hidden in man and it can be discovered after thoughtful deliberation. This is an objective theory of value see value theory , which attributes value to real production-costs, and ultimately expenditures of human labour-time see also law of value. Aristotle draws a distinction between what we honor and what we merely commend NE, b10— An excellent meal is a pleasure to eat but its excessive consumption will bring discomfort. He, the old school-teacher of Samos, who sat concealed in his little garden at Athens, and wrote three hundred books, perhaps out of rage and ambitious envy of Plato, who knows! For while Copernicus has persuaded us to believe, contrary to all the senses, that the earth does NOT stand fast, Boscovich has taught us to abjure the belief in the last thing that "stood fast" of the earth—the belief in "substance," in "matter," in the earth-residuum, and particle-atom: it is the greatest triumph over the senses that has hitherto been gained on earth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Socrates interpreted this as an invitation from the gods to die, thus refuting the charge that, by conducting his trial in the way he did, he was guilty of theft — i. Four are especially significant. With all your love for truth, you have forced yourselves so long, so persistently, and with such hypnotic rigidity to see Nature FALSELY, that is to say, Stoically, that you are no longer able to see it otherwise—and to crown all, some unfathomable superciliousness gives you the Bedlamite hope that BECAUSE you are able to tyrannize over yourselves—Stoicism is self-tyranny—Nature will also allow herself to be tyrannized over: is not the Stoic a PART of Nature? He is thinking of the divine, to use Plato's metaphor, as magnetic, drawing us, by its attractive power, to live the best kind of life possible for us. We will return to the rebirth of divine command theory at the end of this entry. The stage of absolute freedom will be one in which all members freely by reason endorse the organic community and the concrete institutions in which they actually live Phenomenology, BB, VI, B, III.
Had the wicked Socrates really corrupted him? Similarly, everything that helps man to achieve the goal of his struggle is good and that tending to block this struggle is bad. Not to cleave to our own virtues, nor become as a whole a victim to any of our specialties, to our "hospitality" for instance, which is the danger of dangers for highly developed and wealthy souls, who deal prodigally, almost indifferently with themselves, and push the virtue of liberality so far that it becomes a vice.
A critical examination of these views follows: i Philosophy of relativeness: Philiosophers who uphold this philosophy are those who have exemplified good and evil with musical notes or dark and red shades of a picture.
Had the Prophet pbuh declared falsehood to be good Muslims would have cherished it.
Good vs evil examples
That which causes philosophers to be regarded half-distrustfully and half-mockingly, is not the oft-repeated discovery how innocent they are—how often and easily they make mistakes and lose their way, in short, how childish and childlike they are,—but that there is not enough honest dealing with them, whereas they all raise a loud and virtuous outcry when the problem of truthfulness is even hinted at in the remotest manner. The concepts of innocence , spiritual purity , and salvation are likewise related to a concept of being in, or returning to, a state of goodness—one that, according to various teachings of " enlightenment ", approaches a state of holiness or Godliness. They belong to us as part of our motivational DNA. The next two centuries in European philosophy can be described in terms of two lines of development, rationalism and empiricism, both of which led, in different ways, to the possibility of a greater detachment of ethics from theology. Arthur Shopenhauer AD : This German skeptical philosopher, said that man's will to live is his greatest and fundamental desire and the cause of all the struggle in the world. For example, truth out of error? But our concern for the well-being of other people is always, for him, contingent on our special relation to them.
Jacques Maritain — developed a form of Thomism that retained the natural law, but regarded ethical judgment as not purely cognitive but guided by pre-conceptual affective inclinations.
Having kept a sharp eye on philosophers, and having read between their lines long enough, I now say to myself that the greater part of conscious thinking must be counted among the instinctive functions, and it is so even in the case of philosophical thinking; one has here to learn anew, as one learned anew about heredity and "innateness.
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