Under second or reflexive modernity, activists seek out styles and forms of intervention that make a direct or immediate impact in the political field. This can be attributed to globalization and a new form of interconnectedness.
Bernard Manin : On my account elites play indeed a critical role in representative government. On the one hand, as already said, this system is mixed, constituted of several elements between which relationships are not rigorously determined.
It speaks to a recognition that noise, resonance, direct engagement on the streets, in the squares, outside parliaments is part of democratic life. The true European question is thus one of constitution, a foundational issue rather than one of ordinary or representative politics. Alongside this changing disposition is the adoption of repertoires of activism that dispense with the party in favour of flatter or more 'horizontal' styles of interaction based on networks.
In some representative democracies with bicameral legislaturesone chamber is not elected by the people.
They can tweet back, and I am sure they do.
Bernard Manin : I entirely agree with Nadia to say that there is a violation of representation when a leader aims to embody by himself alone the entire community beyond its many divides, rather than a particular view of the community and the common good. Texts already pick over the entrails of the 'dead' democratic body and our 'post-democratic' future.
The number of voters rises, sometimes massively, when elections are perceived as important, involving high stakes, and close-fought.