An analysis of the concept of anarchism and liberalism philosophy

Regardless of the political direction that the anarchist leans towards collectivism or individualismhow the anarchic community is to be secured presents philosophical problems that demand a close regard to possible inconsistencies.

Types of liberalism

Again liberals diverge in their responses. Gutmann, Amy The principles of equality and democracy arose out of the same spirit of revenge and hatred of the powerful. New York: Harper. In other words, what Stirner objects to is the way that the state, through the doctrine of equality of rights, reduces all individual difference to a general, anonymous political identity in which his individuality is swallowed up. Thus Rawls allows the legitimacy of religious-based arguments against slavery and in favor of the United States civil rights movement, because ultimately such arguments were supported by public reasons. Accordingly, in contrast to many liberals, conservatives decry the notion of a social contract — or even its possibility in a modern context. It was in the Renaissance and with the spread of reasoning and humanism through Europe that libertarian ideas emerged. Nozick, recalling the focus on connecting property rights to liberty that animated liberalism in its classical form, notes that if there is anything at all people can do, even if the only thing they are free to do is give a coin to an entertainer, then even that tiniest of liberties will, over time, disturb the favored pattern. As Rawls sees it, the difference principle constitutes a public recognition of the principle of reciprocity: the basic structure is to be arranged such that no social group advances at the cost of another — This critique of the dialectic as being hostile to difference is a theme familiar to poststructuralist thinkers. Because social liberalism is based on labour, it is seen as still caught within the paradigm of materialism and, therefore, egoism. Socrates questioned Athenian authorities constantly and insisted to the right of individual freedom of consciousness. Nietzsche, F. This is partly because the idea of human equality was weak or absent.

The dialectic of liberalism, as we have seen, has revealed itself in the domination of the individual and the exclusion of difference. Values such as rationalism, progress, freedom and equality were thus overturned in the name of struggle, leadership, power, heroism and war.

Students of political philosophy ought to be aware of the two schools of thought that reside under the same banner to avoid philosophical confusions that can be resolved by a clarification of terms. The pervading clarion call of Marx that resources ought to be distributed from each according to his ability to each according to his need does not offer any guide as to what should constitute a need.

Foucault also exposed the disciplinary technologies and subjectifying norms that operated behind the veneer of liberalism.

An analysis of the concept of anarchism and liberalism philosophy

We thus witness the tendency of recent liberal theory Reiman, ; Scanlon, to transform the social contract from an account of the state to an overall justification of morality, or at least a social morality. The key idea of green political thought is the notion ecology, which, by stressing the network of relationships that sustain all forms of life, dictates a holistic or systems-based approach theorizing. Stirner developed a radical critique of liberalism based upon an interrogation of its essentialist premises and foundations. To be sure, Rawls was a kind of egalitarian, but the pattern Rawls meant to endorse was a pattern of equal status, applying not so much to a distribution as to an ongoing relationship. The major strength of feminist ideology is that it has exposed and challenged the gender biases that pervade society and which have been ignored by conventional political thought. This caricature of extremes enables us to consider the differences and the points of agreement between the several schools of political philosophy in a better light. Accordingly, in contrast to many liberals, conservatives decry the notion of a social contract — or even its possibility in a modern context. Its two core theories were Aryanism the belief that the German people constitute a 'master race' and are destined for world domination and a virulent form of anti-Semitism that portrayed the Jews as inherently evil and aimed at their eradication. It attacked absolutism and feudal privilege, instead advocating constitutional and, later, representative government.

Here, the philosopher must refer to a deeper level of analysis and proceed to question the nature and purpose of the institution in light of some standard. Others consider political institutions to be sacred in their own right but this is hardly a tenable position: if humanity did not exist such institutions would be meaningless and hence can only gain their meaning from our existence.

famous anarchists

The most spectacular of these reverses was the collapse of communism in the Eastern European Revolutions of

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Political Philosophy: Methodology